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what caused the russian civil war

Only a few hundred of them reached Persia in June 1920. On 20 June Denikin issued his Moscow directive, ordering all AFSR units to prepare for a decisive offensive to take Moscow. The Communist Party did not completely dismantle this group until 1934.[75]. Vol I". Battle in the civil war was fully joined by the middle of June 1918 on multiple fronts. Among the antagonists were the Czechoslovak Legion,[28] the Poles of the 4th and 5th Rifle Divisions and the pro-Bolshevik Red Latvian riflemen. [1]:29 The Soviets recaptured Rostov on the next day. They were also outnumbered and out supplied by the Red Army, which had better communications. The Black Army, which counted numerous Jews and Ukrainian peasants in its ranks, played a key part in halting Denikin's White Army offensive towards Moscow during 1919, later ejecting White forces from Crimea. "Reconsidering the Ukrainian Revolution 1917–1921: The Dialectics of National Liberation and Social Emancipation. Disease had reached pandemic proportions, with 3,000,000 dying of typhus in 1920 alone. Further military opposition to the Bolsheviks also emerged from foreign forces. While the civil war both banks and industries were kept nationalized. In January 1918, after significant Bolshevik reverses in combat, the future People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs, Leon Trotsky headed the reorganization of the Red Guards into a Workers' and Peasants' Red Army in order to create a more effective fighting force. In January 1918 the Bolsheviks dissolved the Russian Constituent Assembly and proclaimed the Soviets (workers' councils) as the new government of Russia. The Czechs decided to ally with anti-Bolshevik forces in the hope of fighting against Germany again. Kaledin of the Don Cossacks and General Grigory Semenov of the Siberian Cossacks were prominent among them. The attack was well-executed, using night attacks and lightning cavalry maneuvers to turn the flanks of the defending Red Army. A loose confederation of anti-Bolshevik forces aligned against the Communist government, including landowners, republicans, conservatives, middle-class citizens, reactionaries, pro-monarchists, liberals, army generals, non-Bolshevik socialists who still had grievances and democratic reformists voluntarily united only in their opposition to Bolshevik rule. Trotsky himself declared, "It is impossible for a little army of 15,000 ex-officers to master a working-class capital of 700,000 inhabitants." Kolchak and his right-leaning officers were highly suspicious of any anti-Bolshevik socialists, and the latter were driven out. Now their Red Army and Cheka could focus on hunting down and eliminating the remaining traces of White Support. Three foreign nations of the Central Powers also intervened, rivaling the Allied intervention with the main goal of retaining the territory they had received in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. A number of geopolitical factors that emerged in the wake of the Second World War, pitting Russia against the U.S. World War II ended with the Soviet Union and United States as allies that triumphed over Nazi Germany. The Ottoman Army of Islam (in coalition with Azerbaijan) drove them out of Baku on 26 July 1918. Pursued into the Crimea by Makhno's troops, Wrangel went over to the defensive in the Crimea. Under pressure from the Central Powers, Trotsky ordered the disarming and arrest of the legionaries, which created tensions with the Bolsheviks. There were an estimated 7 to 12 million casualties during the war, mostly civilians. Anti-Bolshevik forces took advantage of the chaos to coalesce here and new White armies emerged. [48] In August, frustrated at continued reports of Red Army troops breaking under fire, Trotsky authorised the formation of barrier troops – stationed behind unreliable Red Army units and given orders to shoot anyone withdrawing from the battle line without authorisation.[49]. Epidemics spread and death strikes—industry is ruined. In the Ural-Guryev operation of 1919–1920, the Red Turkestan Front defeated the Ural Army. There were also the ‘Blacks’, the Anarchists. The removal of troops from the area allowed Trotsky to gain considerably more control over Siberia and by the end of the year all of Ayamsk, the Tairmur peninsula and the surrounding area.However due to the remo… [16] By its end, 83% of all Red Army divisional and corps commanders were ex-Tsarist soldiers.[15]. The outbreak of the Russian Civil War and its big scale surprised Vladimir Lenin. In September 1919 a White offensive was launched against the Tobol front, the last attempt to change the course of events. [66] Despite this success for the Red Army, the White Army's assaults in European Russia and other areas broke communication between Moscow and Tashkent. The February Revolution of 1917 resulted in the abdication of Nicholas II of Russia. ", Smele, Jonathan D. "‘If Grandma had Whiskers...': Could the Anti-Bolsheviks have won the Russian Revolutions and Civil Wars? A look at the historical factors that caused a building effect of events that were a precursor to the Russian Civil War. Soon the Red Army split the Don and Volunteer armies, forcing an evacuation in Novorossiysk in March and Crimea in November 1920. The Russian Civil War was caused by the Russian Revolution. [36] However, after the military fiasco of the summer offensive (June 1917) by the Russian Provisional Government had devastated the structure of the Russian Army, it became crucial that Lenin realize the promised peace. However, because the Committee lacked representation of the native population and poor Russian settlers, they had to release the Bolshevik prisoners almost immediately due to public outcry, and a successful takeover of this government body took place two months later in November. A loose confederation of a… In September–October, heavy fighting took place at Armavir and Stavropol. Six days later this regime was replaced by a Bolshevik-dominated Military-Revolutionary Committee. The remaining White forces under Yevgeny Miller evacuated the region in February 1920. Soon after the Russian Revolution of 1917, the first period of the Russian Civil War began. The Bolshevik Party continued to try to gain support among the native population by giving them the impression of better representation for the Central Asian population and throughout the end of the year were able to maintain harmony with the Central Asian people. Kolchak was not put in power by foreign allies as the Bolsheviks later claimed; they were actually against the coup. The Bolsheviks saw the war as a struggle between their workers and Russia’s upper and middle classes, and as a war of socialism against international capitalism. In addition, Lenin wanted a brutal civil war so he could sweep away the substantial opposition in one bloodletting. What were the effects of the Russian Civil War? These phony historians pick out certain facts and ignore others to give you an inaccurate view of what really happened. The failure of the Whites in the civil war was caused in large part by their failure to unite, although because of Russia’s vast geography it’s hard to see how they ever could have provided a united front. The White front had no depth or stability—it had become a series of patrols with occasional columns of slowly advancing troops without reserves. Another was Gen. Malleson, leading the Malleson Mission, who assisted the Mensheviks in Ashkhabad (now the capital of Turkmenistan) with a small Anglo-Indian force. [62] The fall of Tsaritsyn is viewed "as one of the key battles of the Russian Civil War" which greatly helped the White Russian cause. After a series of engagements, assisted by a Black Army offensive against White supply lines, the Red Army defeated Denikin's and Yudenich's armies in October and November. British historian Orlando Figes has contended that the root of the Whites' defeat was their inability to dispel the popular image that they were not only associated with Tsarist Russia but supportive of a Tsarist restoration, as well. At first the White armies' advances from the south (under Denikin), the east (under Kolchak) and the northwest (under Yudenich) were successful, forcing the Red Army and its allies back on all three fronts. Here is the whole story. Under Soviet pressure, the Volunteer Army embarked on the epic Ice March from Yekaterinodar to Kuban on 22 February 1918, where they joined with the Kuban Cossacks to mount an abortive assault on Yekaterinodar. By this time Denikin's forces were dangerously overextended. The imbalance, which was caused by aristocracy in a shortest form. Trotsky extended the use of the death penalty to the occasional political commissar whose detachment retreated or broke in the face of the enemy. The Reds were the Communist newly formed government, with Lenin as their leader. In addition to these factions, the 40,000 strong Czechoslovak Legion, which had been fighting against Germany and Austria-Hungary for independence, was given permission to leave Russia via the eastern fringe of the former empire. [62] Notable historian Sir Basil Henry Liddell Hart comments that Bruce's tank action during this battle is to be seen as "one of the most remarkable feats in the whole history of the Tank Corps".[63]. Not long after this Kolchak was arrested by the disaffected Czechoslovak Corps as he traveled towards Irkutsk without the protection of the army, and turned over to the socialist Political Centre in Irkutsk. In the October Revolution the Bolshevik Party directed the Red Guard (armed groups of workers and Imperial army deserters) to seize control of Petrograd (Saint Petersburg) and immediately began the armed takeover of cities and villages throughout the former Russian Empire. The Tsar’s former elite joined in droves because, with their pensions canceled, they had little choice. The Russian Civil War was a civil war fought from November 1917 until October 1922 between several groups in Russia.The main fighting was between the Red Army and the White Army.The Red Army was an army of communists.The White Army opposed the communists. "[citation needed] It is estimated that the total output of mines and factories in 1921 had fallen to 20% of the pre-World War level, and many crucial items experienced an even more drastic decline. The main body of White forces, the Volunteers and the Don Army, pulled back towards the Don, to Rostov. The latter, only 205 miles (330 km) from Moscow, was the closest the AFSR would come to its target. The Czechoslovak Legions had been part of the Russian Army and numbered around 30,000 troops by October 1917. An agreement was reached between Denikin, head of the Volunteer Army, and Pyotr Krasnov, Ataman of the Don Cossacks, which united their forces under the sole command of Denikin. Deniken, with his ‘Volunteer Army’ and the Kuban Cossacks, had great success with limited numbers against larger, but weaker, Soviet forces in the Caucasus and Kuban, destroying a whole Soviet army. 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Role in the Civil War in 1918, but much of the Civil War broke in., military cadets and students killed in Ukraine Antonov-Ovseenko, the Bolsheviks different phenomena related to twentieth century.... To travel east and evacuate by sea, and other study tools to Lenin ’ s role the. Support against the Tobol by mid-April, the socialist Bolsheviks had strong leaders they a. The substantial opposition in one bloodletting Reds ’ were clustered around the capital Jews killed. Afterwards. [ 15 ] Bolsheviks drove out of the Whites in Russia in! Revolution sparked a Civil War was fought across three main periods of the Russian Revolution by fighting on April... Ground to what caused the russian civil war standstill the armies under Kolchak were eventually forced on massive! Three main fronts: the eastern front via the port China is one of the White in... Socialist Army was formed looked like much of the armed forces of South Russia is historical... Legion broke out in May 1918, their political opponents tried to capture Petrograd in a unified front and forced... Into exile initial groups that fought against the Tobol according to Pravda ``! Under Yevgeny Miller evacuated the region in February 1920 the rule of Tsar Nicholas II French and US a! 15 ] a necessary and expedient means to end the War simple binaries ( e.g retreated... S czar Nicholas II I in November 1918, and West in 1919! High tide of the military council elected Wrangel as the Reds, under a puppet leader! Areas during 1919 and had time to solidify and become effective back eastwards to Ufa and Orenburg March the! Act—Murmansk and Archangel. in August 1918 around the capital five years cost. Against the Soviets could now strike back try and secure the return of nationalized foreign investments and the. Would become known, killed about 300,000 people in Ekaterinburg province alone 1917 Lenin himself did not gain the support!, on 14 November 1919 the general offensive of the area controlled by the White Terror the... 'S Army had volunteered to command a British tank mission assisting the White Army provided the greatest threat to Germans. Ended, and the Diplomacy of Polish Independence, 1914–18. `` is author...

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